DU(1) General Commands Manual DU(1)
du – display disk usage statistics
du [-Aclnx] [-H | -L | -P] [-g | -h | -k | -m] [-a | -s | -d depth]
[-B blocksize] [-I mask] [-t threshold] [file ...]
The du utility displays the file system block usage for each file argument
and for each directory in the file hierarchy rooted in each directory
argument. If no file is specified, the block usage of the hierarchy rooted
in the current directory is displayed.
The options are as follows:
-A Display the apparent size instead of the disk usage. This can be
helpful when operating on compressed volumes or sparse files.
Calculate block counts in blocksize byte blocks. This is different
from the -h, -k, -m, --si and -g options or setting BLOCKSIZE and
gives an estimate of how much space the examined file hierarchy
would require on a filesystem with the given blocksize. Unless in
-A mode, blocksize is rounded up to the next multiple of 512.
-H Symbolic links on the command line are followed, symbolic links in
file hierarchies are not followed.
Ignore files and directories matching the specified mask.
-L Symbolic links on the command line and in file hierarchies are
-P No symbolic links are followed. This is the default.
-a Display an entry for each file in a file hierarchy.
-c Display a grand total.
Display an entry for all files and directories depth directories
-g Display block counts in 1073741824-byte (1 GiB) blocks.
-h “Human-readable” output. Use unit suffixes: Byte, Kilobyte,
Megabyte, Gigabyte, Terabyte and Petabyte based on powers of 1024.
-k Display block counts in 1024-byte (1 kiB) blocks.
-l If a file has multiple hard links, count its size multiple times.
The default behavior of du is to count files with multiple hard
links only once. When the -l option is specified, the hard link
checks are disabled, and these files are counted (and displayed) as
many times as they are found.
-m Display block counts in 1048576-byte (1 MiB) blocks.
-n Ignore files and directories with user “nodump” flag (UF_NODUMP)
-r Generate messages about directories that cannot be read, files that
cannot be opened, and so on. This is the default case. This
option exists solely for conformance with X/Open Portability Guide
Issue 4 (“XPG4”).
-s Display an entry for each specified file. (Equivalent to -d 0)
--si “Human-readable” output. Use unit suffixes: Byte, Kilobyte,
Megabyte, Gigabyte, Terabyte and Petabyte based on powers of 1000.
Display only entries for which size exceeds threshold. If
threshold is negative, display only entries for which size is less
than the absolute value of threshold.
-x File system mount points are not traversed.
The du utility counts the storage used by symbolic links and not the files
they reference unless the -H or -L option is specified. If either the -H
or -L option is specified, storage used by any symbolic links which are
followed is not counted (or displayed). The -H, -L and -P options override
each other and the command's actions are determined by the last one
Files having multiple hard links are counted (and displayed) a single time
per du execution. Directories having multiple hard links (typically Time
Machine backups) are counted a single time per du execution. The -h, -k,
-m and --si options all override each other; the last one specified
determines the block counts used.
BLOCKSIZE If the environment variable BLOCKSIZE is set, and the -h, -k, -m
or --si options are not specified, the block counts will be
displayed in units of that block size. If BLOCKSIZE is not set,
and the -h, -k, -m or --si options are not specified, the block
counts will be displayed in 512-byte blocks.
Show disk usage for all files in the current directory. Output is in
# du -ah
Summarize disk usage in the current directory:
# du -hs
Summarize disk usage for a specific directory:
# du -hs /home
Show name and size of all C files in a specific directory. Also display a
grand total at the end:
# du -ch /usr/src/sys/kern/*.c
df(1), chflags(2), fts(3), symlink(7), quot(8)
The du utility is compliant with the IEEE Std 1003.1-2008 (“POSIX.1”)
The flags [-cdhP], as well as the BLOCKSIZE environment variable, are
extensions to that specification.
The flag [-r] is accepted but ignored, for compatibility with systems
implementing the obsolete X/Open Commands and Utilities Issue 5 (“XCU5”)
The du utility and its -a and -s options first appeared in Version 1 AT&T
The -r option first appeared in AT&T System III UNIX and is available since
FreeBSD 3.5. The -k and -x options first appeared in 4.3BSD-Reno and -H in
4.4BSD. The -c and -L options first appeared in the GNU fileutils; -L and
-P are available since 4.4BSD-Lite1, -c since FreeBSD 2.2.6. The -d option
first appeared in FreeBSD 2.2, -h first appeared in FreeBSD 4.0.
This version of du was written by Chris Newcomb for 4.3BSD-Reno in 1989.
macOS 12.1 August 1, 2019 macOS 12.1