GIT(1)                             Git Manual                             GIT(1)

       git - the stupid content tracker

       git [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
           [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
           [-p|--paginate|-P|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
           [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
           [--super-prefix=<path>] [--config-env=<name>=<envvar>]
           <command> [<args>]

       Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
       unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations and
       full access to internals.

       See gittutorial(7) to get started, then see giteveryday(7) for a useful
       minimum set of commands. The Git User’s Manual[1] has a more in-depth

       After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this page to
       learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about individual Git
       commands with "git help command". gitcli(7) manual page gives you an
       overview of the command-line command syntax.

       A formatted and hyperlinked copy of the latest Git documentation can be
       viewed at or

           Prints the Git suite version that the git program came from.

           This option is internally converted to git version ... and accepts
           the same options as the git-version(1) command. If --help is also
           given, it takes precedence over --version.

           Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used commands. If
           the option --all or -a is given then all available commands are
           printed. If a Git command is named this option will bring up the
           manual page for that command.

           Other options are available to control how the manual page is
           displayed. See git-help(1) for more information, because git --help
           ... is converted internally into git help ....

       -C <path>
           Run as if git was started in <path> instead of the current working
           directory. When multiple -C options are given, each subsequent
           non-absolute -C <path> is interpreted relative to the preceding -C
           <path>. If <path> is present but empty, e.g.  -C "", then the current
           working directory is left unchanged.

           This option affects options that expect path name like --git-dir and
           --work-tree in that their interpretations of the path names would be
           made relative to the working directory caused by the -C option. For
           example the following invocations are equivalent:

               git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
               git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status

       -c <name>=<value>
           Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value given will
           override values from configuration files. The <name> is expected in
           the same format as listed by git config (subkeys separated by dots).

           Note that omitting the = in git -c ... is allowed and sets
  to the boolean true value (just like [foo]bar would in a
           config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like git
           -c ...) sets to the empty string which git config
           --type=bool will convert to false.

           Like -c <name>=<value>, give configuration variable <name> a value,
           where <envvar> is the name of an environment variable from which to
           retrieve the value. Unlike -c there is no shortcut for directly
           setting the value to an empty string, instead the environment
           variable itself must be set to the empty string. It is an error if
           the <envvar> does not exist in the environment.  <envvar> may not
           contain an equals sign to avoid ambiguity with <name> containing one.

           This is useful for cases where you want to pass transitory
           configuration options to git, but are doing so on OS’s where other
           processes might be able to read your cmdline (e.g.
           /proc/self/cmdline), but not your environ (e.g.  /proc/self/environ).
           That behavior is the default on Linux, but may not be on your system.

           Note that this might add security for variables such as
           http.extraHeader where the sensitive information is part of the
           value, but not e.g.  url.<base>.insteadOf where the sensitive
           information can be part of the key.

           Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed. This can also
           be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH environment variable. If
           no path is given, git will print the current setting and then exit.

           Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git’s HTML
           documentation is installed and exit.

           Print the manpath (see man(1)) for the man pages for this version of
           Git and exit.

           Print the path where the Info files documenting this version of Git
           are installed and exit.

       -p, --paginate
           Pipe all output into less (or if set, $PAGER) if standard output is a
           terminal. This overrides the pager.<cmd> configuration options (see
           the "Configuration Mechanism" section below).

       -P, --no-pager
           Do not pipe Git output into a pager.

           Set the path to the repository (".git" directory). This can also be
           controlled by setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an
           absolute path or relative path to current working directory.

           Specifying the location of the ".git" directory using this option (or
           GIT_DIR environment variable) turns off the repository discovery that
           tries to find a directory with ".git" subdirectory (which is how the
           repository and the top-level of the working tree are discovered), and
           tells Git that you are at the top level of the working tree. If you
           are not at the top-level directory of the working tree, you should
           tell Git where the top-level of the working tree is, with the
           --work-tree=<path> option (or GIT_WORK_TREE environment variable)

           If you just want to run git as if it was started in <path> then use
           git -C <path>.

           Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path or a
           path relative to the current working directory. This can also be
           controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE environment variable and the
           core.worktree configuration variable (see core.worktree in git-
           config(1) for a more detailed discussion).

           Set the Git namespace. See gitnamespaces(7) for more details.
           Equivalent to setting the GIT_NAMESPACE environment variable.

           Currently for internal use only. Set a prefix which gives a path from
           above a repository down to its root. One use is to give submodules
           context about the superproject that invoked it.

           Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR environment is
           not set, it is set to the current working directory.

           Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See git-
           replace(1) for more information.

           Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic). This
           is equivalent to setting the GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS environment
           variable to 1.

           Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting the
           GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS environment variable to 1. Disabling globbing on
           individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec magic ":(literal)"

           Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
           the GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS environment variable to 1. Enabling globbing
           on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec magic ":(glob)"

           Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting the
           GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS environment variable to 1.

           Do not perform optional operations that require locks. This is
           equivalent to setting the GIT_OPTIONAL_LOCKS to 0.

           List commands by group. This is an internal/experimental option and
           may change or be removed in the future. Supported groups are:
           builtins, parseopt (builtin commands that use parse-options), main
           (all commands in libexec directory), others (all other commands in
           $PATH that have git- prefix), list-<category> (see categories in
           command-list.txt), nohelpers (exclude helper commands), alias and
           config (retrieve command list from config variable

       We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
       ("plumbing") commands.

       We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
       ancillary user utilities.

   Main porcelain commands
           Add file contents to the index.

           Apply a series of patches from a mailbox.

           Create an archive of files from a named tree.

           Use binary search to find the commit that introduced a bug.

           List, create, or delete branches.

           Move objects and refs by archive.

           Switch branches or restore working tree files.

           Apply the changes introduced by some existing commits.

           Graphical alternative to git-commit.

           Remove untracked files from the working tree.

           Clone a repository into a new directory.

           Record changes to the repository.

           Give an object a human readable name based on an available ref.

           Show changes between commits, commit and working tree, etc.

           Download objects and refs from another repository.

           Prepare patches for e-mail submission.

           Cleanup unnecessary files and optimize the local repository.

           Print lines matching a pattern.

           A portable graphical interface to Git.

           Create an empty Git repository or reinitialize an existing one.

           Show commit logs.

           Run tasks to optimize Git repository data.

           Join two or more development histories together.

           Move or rename a file, a directory, or a symlink.

           Add or inspect object notes.

           Fetch from and integrate with another repository or a local branch.

           Update remote refs along with associated objects.

           Compare two commit ranges (e.g. two versions of a branch).

           Reapply commits on top of another base tip.

           Reset current HEAD to the specified state.

           Restore working tree files.

           Revert some existing commits.

           Remove files from the working tree and from the index.

           Summarize git log output.

           Show various types of objects.

           Initialize and modify the sparse-checkout.

           Stash the changes in a dirty working directory away.

           Show the working tree status.

           Initialize, update or inspect submodules.

           Switch branches.

           Create, list, delete or verify a tag object signed with GPG.

           Manage multiple working trees.

           The Git repository browser.

   Ancillary Commands

           Get and set repository or global options.

           Git data exporter.

           Backend for fast Git data importers.

           Rewrite branches.

           Run merge conflict resolution tools to resolve merge conflicts.

           Pack heads and tags for efficient repository access.

           Prune all unreachable objects from the object database.

           Manage reflog information.

           Manage set of tracked repositories.

           Pack unpacked objects in a repository.

           Create, list, delete refs to replace objects.


           Annotate file lines with commit information.

           Show what revision and author last modified each line of a file.

           Collect information for user to file a bug report.

           Count unpacked number of objects and their disk consumption.

           Show changes using common diff tools.

           Verifies the connectivity and validity of the objects in the

           Display help information about Git.

           Instantly browse your working repository in gitweb.

           Show three-way merge without touching index.

           Reuse recorded resolution of conflicted merges.

           Show branches and their commits.

           Check the GPG signature of commits.

           Check the GPG signature of tags.

           Show logs with difference each commit introduces.

           Git web interface (web frontend to Git repositories).

   Interacting with Others
       These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other people via
       patch over e-mail.

           Import a GNU Arch repository into Git.

           Export a single commit to a CVS checkout.

           Salvage your data out of another SCM people love to hate.

           A CVS server emulator for Git.

           Send a collection of patches from stdin to an IMAP folder.

           Import from and submit to Perforce repositories.

           Applies a quilt patchset onto the current branch.

           Generates a summary of pending changes.

           Send a collection of patches as emails.

           Bidirectional operation between a Subversion repository and Git.

   Reset, restore and revert
       There are three commands with similar names: git reset, git restore and
       git revert.

       •   git-revert(1) is about making a new commit that reverts the changes
           made by other commits.

       •   git-restore(1) is about restoring files in the working tree from
           either the index or another commit. This command does not update your
           branch. The command can also be used to restore files in the index
           from another commit.

       •   git-reset(1) is about updating your branch, moving the tip in order
           to add or remove commits from the branch. This operation changes the
           commit history.

           git reset can also be used to restore the index, overlapping with git

       Although Git includes its own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are
       sufficient to support development of alternative porcelains. Developers
       of such porcelains might start by reading about git-update-index(1) and

       The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics) to these
       low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable than Porcelain level
       commands, because these commands are primarily for scripted use. The
       interface to Porcelain commands on the other hand are subject to change
       in order to improve the end user experience.

       The following description divides the low-level commands into commands
       that manipulate objects (in the repository, index, and working tree),
       commands that interrogate and compare objects, and commands that move
       objects and references between repositories.

   Manipulation commands
           Apply a patch to files and/or to the index.

           Copy files from the index to the working tree.

           Write and verify Git commit-graph files.

           Create a new commit object.

           Compute object ID and optionally creates a blob from a file.

           Build pack index file for an existing packed archive.

           Run a three-way file merge.

           Run a merge for files needing merging.

           Creates a tag object with extra validation.

           Build a tree-object from ls-tree formatted text.

           Write and verify multi-pack-indexes.

           Create a packed archive of objects.

           Remove extra objects that are already in pack files.

           Reads tree information into the index.

           Read, modify and delete symbolic refs.

           Unpack objects from a packed archive.

           Register file contents in the working tree to the index.

           Update the object name stored in a ref safely.

           Create a tree object from the current index.

   Interrogation commands
           Provide content or type and size information for repository objects.

           Find commits yet to be applied to upstream.

           Compares files in the working tree and the index.

           Compare a tree to the working tree or index.

           Compares the content and mode of blobs found via two tree objects.

           Output information on each ref.

           Run a Git command on a list of repositories.

           Extract commit ID from an archive created using git-archive.

           Show information about files in the index and the working tree.

           List references in a remote repository.

           List the contents of a tree object.

           Find as good common ancestors as possible for a merge.

           Find symbolic names for given revs.

           Find redundant pack files.

           Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order.

           Pick out and massage parameters.

           Show packed archive index.

           List references in a local repository.

           Creates a temporary file with a blob’s contents.

           Show a Git logical variable.

           Validate packed Git archive files.

       In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in the
       working tree.

   Syncing repositories
           A really simple server for Git repositories.

           Receive missing objects from another repository.

           Server side implementation of Git over HTTP.

           Push objects over Git protocol to another repository.

           Update auxiliary info file to help dumb servers.

       The following are helper commands used by the above; end users typically
       do not use them directly.

           Download from a remote Git repository via HTTP.

           Push objects over HTTP/DAV to another repository.

           Receive what is pushed into the repository.

           Restricted login shell for Git-only SSH access.

           Send archive back to git-archive.

           Send objects packed back to git-fetch-pack.

   Internal helper commands
       These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end users
       typically do not use them directly.

           Display gitattributes information.

           Debug gitignore / exclude files.

           Show canonical names and email addresses of contacts.

           Ensures that a reference name is well formed.

           Display data in columns.

           Retrieve and store user credentials.

           Helper to temporarily store passwords in memory.

           Helper to store credentials on disk.

           Produce a merge commit message.

           Add or parse structured information in commit messages.

           Extracts patch and authorship from a single e-mail message.

           Simple UNIX mbox splitter program.

           The standard helper program to use with git-merge-index.

           Compute unique ID for a patch.

           Git’s i18n setup code for shell scripts.

           Common Git shell script setup code.

           Remove unnecessary whitespace.

       The following documentation pages are guides about Git concepts.

           Defining attributes per path.

           Git command-line interface and conventions.

           A Git core tutorial for developers.

           Providing usernames and passwords to Git.

           Git for CVS users.

           Tweaking diff output.

           A useful minimum set of commands for Everyday Git.

           Frequently asked questions about using Git.

           A Git Glossary.

           Hooks used by Git.

           Specifies intentionally untracked files to ignore.

           Map author/committer names and/or E-Mail addresses.

           Defining submodule properties.

           Git namespaces.

           Helper programs to interact with remote repositories.

           Git Repository Layout.

           Specifying revisions and ranges for Git.

           Mounting one repository inside another.

           A tutorial introduction to Git.

           A tutorial introduction to Git: part two.

           An overview of recommended workflows with Git.

       Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
       repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look like

           # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.

           ; core variables
                   ; Don't trust file modes
                   filemode = false

           ; user identity
                   name = "Junio C Hamano"
                   email = ""

       Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust their
       operation accordingly. See git-config(1) for a list and more details
       about the configuration mechanism.

           Indicates the object name for any type of object.

           Indicates a blob object name.

           Indicates a tree object name.

           Indicates a commit object name.

           Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A command that takes a
           <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to operate on a <tree> object
           but automatically dereferences <commit> and <tag> objects that point
           at a <tree>.

           Indicates a commit or tag object name. A command that takes a
           <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to operate on a <commit>
           object but automatically dereferences <tag> objects that point at a

           Indicates that an object type is required. Currently one of: blob,
           tree, commit, or tag.

           Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the root of the tree
           structure GIT_INDEX_FILE describes.

       Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
       symbolic notation:

           indicates the head of the current branch.

           a valid tag name (i.e. a refs/tags/<tag> reference).

           a valid head name (i.e. a refs/heads/<head> reference).

       For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see "SPECIFYING
       REVISIONS" section in gitrevisions(7).

       Please see the gitrepository-layout(5) document.

       Read githooks(5) for more details about each hook.

       Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the

       Please see gitglossary(7).

       Various Git commands use the following environment variables:

   The Git Repository
       These environment variables apply to all core Git commands. Nb: it is
       worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above Git
       so take care if using a foreign front-end.

           This environment allows the specification of an alternate index file.
           If not specified, the default of $GIT_DIR/index is used.

           This environment variable allows the specification of an index
           version for new repositories. It won’t affect existing index files.
           By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See git-update-index(1)
           for more information.

           If the object storage directory is specified via this environment
           variable then the sha1 directories are created underneath - otherwise
           the default $GIT_DIR/objects directory is used.

           Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
           archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable specifies
           a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list of Git object
           directories which can be used to search for Git objects. New objects
           will not be written to these directories.

           Entries that begin with " (double-quote) will be interpreted as
           C-style quoted paths, removing leading and trailing double-quotes and
           respecting backslash escapes. E.g., the value
           "path-with-\"-and-:-in-it":vanilla-path has two paths:
           path-with-"-and-:-in-it and vanilla-path.

           If the GIT_DIR environment variable is set then it specifies a path
           to use instead of the default .git for the base of the repository.
           The --git-dir command-line option also sets this value.

           Set the path to the root of the working tree. This can also be
           controlled by the --work-tree command-line option and the
           core.worktree configuration variable.

           Set the Git namespace; see gitnamespaces(7) for details. The
           --namespace command-line option also sets this value.

           This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If set, it
           is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up into while
           looking for a repository directory (useful for excluding slow-loading
           network directories). It will not exclude the current working
           directory or a GIT_DIR set on the command line or in the environment.
           Normally, Git has to read the entries in this list and resolve any
           symlink that might be present in order to compare them with the
           current directory. However, if even this access is slow, you can add
           an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the subsequent entries
           are not symlinks and needn’t be resolved; e.g.,

           When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
           directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
           directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
           does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable can
           be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem boundaries. Like
           GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES, this will not affect an explicit repository
           directory set via GIT_DIR or on the command line.

           If this variable is set to a path, non-worktree files that are
           normally in $GIT_DIR will be taken from this path instead.
           Worktree-specific files such as HEAD or index are taken from
           $GIT_DIR. See gitrepository-layout(5) and git-worktree(1) for
           details. This variable has lower precedence than other path variables

           If this variable is set, the default hash algorithm for new
           repositories will be set to this value. This value is currently
           ignored when cloning; the setting of the remote repository is used
           instead. The default is "sha1". THIS VARIABLE IS EXPERIMENTAL! See
           --object-format in git-init(1).

   Git Commits
           The human-readable name used in the author identity when creating
           commit or tag objects, or when writing reflogs. Overrides the
  and configuration settings.

           The email address used in the author identity when creating commit or
           tag objects, or when writing reflogs. Overrides the and
  configuration settings.

           The date used for the author identity when creating commit or tag
           objects, or when writing reflogs. See git-commit(1) for valid

           The human-readable name used in the committer identity when creating
           commit or tag objects, or when writing reflogs. Overrides the
  and configuration settings.

           The email address used in the author identity when creating commit or
           tag objects, or when writing reflogs. Overrides the and
  configuration settings.

           The date used for the committer identity when creating commit or tag
           objects, or when writing reflogs. See git-commit(1) for valid

           The email address used in the author and committer identities if no
           other relevant environment variable or configuration setting has been

   Git Diffs
           Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the number of
           context lines shown when a unified diff is created. This takes
           precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option value passed on the
           Git diff command line.

           When the environment variable GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is set, the program
           named by it is called to generate diffs, and Git does not use its
           builtin diff machinery. For a path that is added, removed, or
           modified, GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called with 7 parameters:

               path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode


           are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the contents of

           are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,

           are the octal representation of the file modes.

           The file parameters can point at the user’s working file (e.g.
           new-file in "git-diff-files"), /dev/null (e.g.  old-file when a new
           file is added), or a temporary file (e.g.  old-file in the index).
           GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF should not worry about unlinking the temporary file
           --- it is removed when GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF exits.

           For a path that is unmerged, GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called with 1
           parameter, <path>.

           For each path GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called, two environment variables,

           A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.

           The total number of paths.

           A number controlling the amount of output shown by the recursive
           merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity. See git-merge(1)

           This environment variable overrides $PAGER. If it is set to an empty
           string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch a pager. See also
           the core.pager option in git-config(1).

           A number controlling how many seconds to delay before showing
           optional progress indicators. Defaults to 2.

           This environment variable overrides $EDITOR and $VISUAL. It is used
           by several Git commands when, on interactive mode, an editor is to be
           launched. See also git-var(1) and the core.editor option in git-

           This environment variable overrides the configured Git editor when
           editing the todo list of an interactive rebase. See also git-
           rebase(1) and the sequence.editor option in git-config(1).

           If either of these environment variables is set then git fetch and
           git push will use the specified command instead of ssh when they need
           to connect to a remote system. The command-line parameters passed to
           the configured command are determined by the ssh variant. See
           ssh.variant option in git-config(1) for details.

           $GIT_SSH_COMMAND takes precedence over $GIT_SSH, and is interpreted
           by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
           $GIT_SSH on the other hand must be just the path to a program (which
           can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are needed).

           Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
           personal .ssh/config file. Please consult your ssh documentation for
           further details.

           If this environment variable is set, it overrides Git’s autodetection
           whether GIT_SSH/GIT_SSH_COMMAND/core.sshCommand refer to OpenSSH,
           plink or tortoiseplink. This variable overrides the config setting
           ssh.variant that serves the same purpose.

           If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
           acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP
           authentication) will call this program with a suitable prompt as
           command-line argument and read the password from its STDOUT. See also
           the core.askPass option in git-config(1).

           If this environment variable is set to 0, git will not prompt on the
           terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).

           Take the configuration from the given files instead from global or
           system-level configuration files. If GIT_CONFIG_SYSTEM is set, the
           system config file defined at build time (usually /etc/gitconfig)
           will not be read. Likewise, if GIT_CONFIG_GLOBAL is set, neither
           $HOME/.gitconfig nor $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/config will be read. Can be
           set to /dev/null to skip reading configuration files of the
           respective level.

           Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
           $(prefix)/etc/gitconfig file. This environment variable can be used
           along with $HOME and $XDG_CONFIG_HOME to create a predictable
           environment for a picky script, or you can set it temporarily to
           avoid using a buggy /etc/gitconfig file while waiting for someone
           with sufficient permissions to fix it.

           If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such as git
           blame (in incremental mode), git rev-list, git log, git check-attr
           and git check-ignore will force a flush of the output stream after
           each record have been flushed. If this variable is set to "0", the
           output of these commands will be done using completely buffered I/O.
           If this environment variable is not set, Git will choose buffered or
           record-oriented flushing based on whether stdout appears to be
           redirected to a file or not.

           Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
           command execution and external command execution.

           If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison is case
           insensitive), trace messages will be printed to stderr.

           If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2 and lower
           than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this value as an open file
           descriptor and will try to write the trace messages into this file

           Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path (starting
           with a / character), Git will interpret this as a file path and will
           try to append the trace messages to it.

           Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or "false" (case
           insensitive) disables trace messages.

           Enables trace messages for the filesystem monitor extension. See
           GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.

           Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
           access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is recorded.
           This may be helpful for troubleshooting some pack-related performance
           problems. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.

           Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a given
           program. This can help with debugging object negotiation or other
           protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet starting with
           "PACK" (but see GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE below). See GIT_TRACE for
           available trace output options.

           Enables tracing of packfiles sent or received by a given program.
           Unlike other trace output, this trace is verbatim: no headers, and no
           quoting of binary data. You almost certainly want to direct into a
           file (e.g., GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE=/tmp/my.pack) rather than displaying
           it on the terminal or mixing it with other trace output.

           Note that this is currently only implemented for the client side of
           clones and fetches.

           Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution time
           of each Git command. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output

           Enables trace messages for operations on the ref database. See
           GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.

           Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
           working directory after Git has completed its setup phase. See
           GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.

           Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching / cloning of
           shallow repositories. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output

           Enables a curl full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data,
           including descriptive information, of the git transport protocol.
           This is similar to doing curl --trace-ascii on the command line. See
           GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.

           When a curl trace is enabled (see GIT_TRACE_CURL above), do not dump
           data (that is, only dump info lines and headers).

           Enables more detailed trace messages from the "trace2" library.
           Output from GIT_TRACE2 is a simple text-based format for human

           If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison is case
           insensitive), trace messages will be printed to stderr.

           If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2 and lower
           than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this value as an open file
           descriptor and will try to write the trace messages into this file

           Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path (starting
           with a / character), Git will interpret this as a file path and will
           try to append the trace messages to it. If the path already exists
           and is a directory, the trace messages will be written to files (one
           per process) in that directory, named according to the last component
           of the SID and an optional counter (to avoid filename collisions).

           In addition, if the variable is set to
           af_unix:[<socket_type>:]<absolute-pathname>, Git will try to open the
           path as a Unix Domain Socket. The socket type can be either stream or

           Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or "false" (case
           insensitive) disables trace messages.

           See Trace2 documentation[2] for full details.

           This setting writes a JSON-based format that is suited for machine
           interpretation. See GIT_TRACE2 for available trace output options and
           Trace2 documentation[2] for full details.

           In addition to the text-based messages available in GIT_TRACE2, this
           setting writes a column-based format for understanding nesting
           regions. See GIT_TRACE2 for available trace output options and Trace2
           documentation[2] for full details.

           By default, when tracing is activated, Git redacts the values of
           cookies, the "Authorization:" header, and the "Proxy-Authorization:"
           header. Set this variable to 0 to prevent this redaction.

           Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs
           literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example, running
           GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c' will search for commits that
           touch the path *.c, not any paths that the glob *.c matches. You
           might want this if you are feeding literal paths to Git (e.g., paths
           previously given to you by git ls-tree, --raw diff output, etc).

           Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs as
           glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).

           Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs as
           literal (aka "literal" magic).

           Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs as

           When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep track of
           the reason why the ref was updated (which is typically the name of
           the high-level command that updated the ref), in addition to the old
           and new values of the ref. A scripted Porcelain command can use
           set_reflog_action helper function in git-sh-setup to set its name to
           this variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the end
           user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.

           If set to 0, ignore broken or badly named refs when iterating over
           lists of refs. Normally Git will try to include any such refs, which
           may cause some operations to fail. This is usually preferable, as
           potentially destructive operations (e.g., git-prune(1)) are better
           off aborting rather than ignoring broken refs (and thus considering
           the history they point to as not worth saving). The default value is
           1 (i.e., be paranoid about detecting and aborting all operations).
           You should not normally need to set this to 0, but it may be useful
           when trying to salvage data from a corrupted repository.

           If set to a colon-separated list of protocols, behave as if
           protocol.allow is set to never, and each of the listed protocols has
           protocol.<name>.allow set to always (overriding any existing
           configuration). In other words, any protocol not mentioned will be
           disallowed (i.e., this is a whitelist, not a blacklist). See the
           description of protocol.allow in git-config(1) for more details.

           Set to 0 to prevent protocols used by fetch/push/clone which are
           configured to the user state. This is useful to restrict recursive
           submodule initialization from an untrusted repository or for programs
           which feed potentially-untrusted URLS to git commands. See git-
           config(1) for more details.

           For internal use only. Used in handshaking the wire protocol.
           Contains a colon : separated list of keys with optional values
           key[=value]. Presence of unknown keys and values must be ignored.

           Note that servers may need to be configured to allow this variable to
           pass over some transports. It will be propagated automatically when
           accessing local repositories (i.e., file:// or a filesystem path), as
           well as over the git:// protocol. For git-over-http, it should work
           automatically in most configurations, but see the discussion in git-
           http-backend(1). For git-over-ssh, the ssh server may need to be
           configured to allow clients to pass this variable (e.g., by using
           AcceptEnv GIT_PROTOCOL with OpenSSH).

           This configuration is optional. If the variable is not propagated,
           then clients will fall back to the original "v0" protocol (but may
           miss out on some performance improvements or features). This variable
           currently only affects clones and fetches; it is not yet used for
           pushes (but may be in the future).

           If set to 0, Git will complete any requested operation without
           performing any optional sub-operations that require taking a lock.
           For example, this will prevent git status from refreshing the index
           as a side effect. This is useful for processes running in the
           background which do not want to cause lock contention with other
           operations on the repository. Defaults to 1.

           Windows-only: allow redirecting the standard input/output/error
           handles to paths specified by the environment variables. This is
           particularly useful in multi-threaded applications where the
           canonical way to pass standard handles via CreateProcess() is not an
           option because it would require the handles to be marked inheritable
           (and consequently every spawned process would inherit them, possibly
           blocking regular Git operations). The primary intended use case is to
           use named pipes for communication (e.g.  \\.\pipe\my-git-stdin-123).

           Two special values are supported: off will simply close the
           corresponding standard handle, and if GIT_REDIRECT_STDERR is 2>&1,
           standard error will be redirected to the same handle as standard

       GIT_PRINT_SHA1_ELLIPSIS (deprecated)
           If set to yes, print an ellipsis following an (abbreviated) SHA-1
           value. This affects indications of detached HEADs (git-checkout(1))
           and the raw diff output (git-diff(1)). Printing an ellipsis in the
           cases mentioned is no longer considered adequate and support for it
           is likely to be removed in the foreseeable future (along with the

       More detail on the following is available from the Git concepts chapter
       of the user-manual[3] and gitcore-tutorial(7).

       A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
       subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
       things, a compressed object database representing the complete history of
       the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
       contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
       as tags and branch heads.

       The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
       hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
       directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
       and some number of parent commits.

       The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
       "version", represents a step in the project’s history, and each parent
       represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
       parent represent merges of independent lines of development.

       All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
       written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique. The
       entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing just
       that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this purpose.

       When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
       efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".

       Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref may
       contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs with
       names beginning ref/head/ contain the SHA-1 name of the most recent
       commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of tags of
       interest are stored under ref/tags/. A special ref named HEAD contains
       the name of the currently checked-out branch.

       The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
       path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
       the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
       attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
       corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the working
       tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may be updated
       with new content, and new commits may be created from the content stored
       in the index.

       The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
       for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various unmerged
       version of a file when a merge is in progress.

       See the references in the "description" section to get started using Git.
       The following is probably more detail than necessary for a first-time

       The Git concepts chapter of the user-manual[3] and gitcore-tutorial(7)
       both provide introductions to the underlying Git architecture.

       See gitworkflows(7) for an overview of recommended workflows.

       See also the howto[4] documents for some useful examples.

       The internals are documented in the Git API documentation[5].

       Users migrating from CVS may also want to read gitcvs-migration(7).

       Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio C
       Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
       <[6]>. gives you a more
       complete list of contributors.

       If you have a clone of git.git itself, the output of git-shortlog(1) and
       git-blame(1) can show you the authors for specific parts of the project.

       Report bugs to the Git mailing list <[6]> where the
       development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
       subscribed to the list to send a message there. See the list archive at for previous bug reports and other

       Issues which are security relevant should be disclosed privately to the
       Git Security mailing list <[7]>.

       gittutorial(7), gittutorial-2(7), giteveryday(7), gitcvs-migration(7),
       gitglossary(7), gitcore-tutorial(7), gitcli(7), The Git User’s Manual[1],

       Part of the git(1) suite

        1. Git User’s Manual

        2. Trace2 documentation

        3. Git concepts chapter of the user-manual

        4. howto

        5. Git API documentation



Git 2.34.0                         11/14/2021                             GIT(1)