PAR(1)                 User Contributed Perl Documentation                PAR(1)

NAME - Make and run Perl Archives

       (Please see pp for convenient ways to make self-contained executables,
       scripts or PAR archives from perl programs.)

       To make a PAR distribution from a CPAN module distribution:

           % -p                 # make a PAR dist under the current path
           % -p Foo-0.01        # assume unpacked CPAN dist in Foo-0.01/

       To manipulate a PAR distribution:

           % -i Foo-0.01-i386-freebsd-5.8.0.par # install
           % -i         # auto-appends archname + perlver
           % -i cpan://AUTRIJUS/PAR-0.74        # uses CPAN author directory
           % -u Foo-0.01-i386-freebsd-5.8.0.par # uninstall
           % -s Foo-0.01-i386-freebsd-5.8.0.par # sign
           % -v Foo-0.01-i386-freebsd-5.8.0.par # verify

       To use from ./foo.par:

           % -A./foo.par -MHello
           % -A./foo -MHello    # the .par part is optional

       Same thing, but search foo.par in the @INC;

           % -Ifoo.par -MHello
           % -Ifoo -MHello      # ditto

       Run or script/ from foo.par:

           % foo.par    # looks for '' by default,
                                       # otherwise run ''

       To make a self-containing script containing a PAR file :

           % -O./ foo.par
           % ./          # same as above

       To embed the necessary non-core modules and shared objects for PAR's
       execution (like "Zlib", "IO", "Cwd", etc), use the -b flag:

           % -b -O./ foo.par
           % ./          # runs anywhere with core modules installed

       If you also wish to embed core modules along, use the -B flag instead:

           % -B -O./ foo.par
           % ./          # runs anywhere with the perl interpreter

       This is particularly useful when making stand-alone binary executables;
       see pp for details.

       This stand-alone command offers roughly the same feature as "perl -MPAR",
       except that it takes the pre-loaded .par files via "-Afoo.par" instead of

       Additionally, it lets you convert a CPAN distribution to a PAR
       distribution, as well as manipulate such distributions.  For more
       information about PAR distributions, see PAR::Dist.

   Binary PAR loader (parl)
       If you have a C compiler, or a pre-built binary package of PAR is
       available for your platform, a binary version of will also be
       automatically installed as parl.  You can use it to run .par files:

           # runs script/ in archive, uses its lib/* as libraries
           % parl myapp.par     # runs or script/ in myapp.par
           % parl          # also runs normal perl scripts

       However, if the .par archive contains either or script/,
       it is used instead:

           % parl myapp.par     # runs, with '' as @ARGV

       Finally, the "-O" option makes a stand-alone binary executable from a PAR

           % parl -B -Omyapp myapp.par
           % ./myapp                   # run it anywhere without perl binaries

       With the "--par-options" flag, generated binaries can act as "parl" to
       pack new binaries:

           % ./myapp --par-options -Omyap2 myapp.par   # identical to ./myapp
           % ./myapp --par-options -Omyap3 myap3.par   # now with different PAR

   Stand-alone executable format
       The format for the stand-alone executable is simply concatenating the
       following elements:

       •   The executable itself

           Either in plain-text ( or native executable format (parl or

       •   Any number of embedded files

           These are typically used for bootstrapping PAR's various XS
           dependencies.  Each section contains:

           The magic string ""FILE""
           Length of file name in "pack('N')" format plus 9
           8 bytes of hex-encoded CRC32 of file content
           A single slash (""/"")
           The file name (without path)
           File length in "pack('N')" format
           The file's content (not compressed)
       •   One PAR file

           This is just a zip file beginning with the magic string

       •   Ending section

           The pre-computed cache name.  A pack('Z40') string of the value of -T
           (--tempcache) or the hash of the file, followed by "\0CACHE".  The
           hash of the file is calculated with Digest::SHA.

           A pack('N') number of the total length of FILE and PAR sections,
           followed by a 8-bytes magic string: ""\\012"".

       PAR, PAR::Dist, parl, pp

       Audrey Tang <>, Steffen Mueller <>

       You can write to the mailing list at <>, or send an empty
       mail to <> to participate in the discussion.

       Please submit bug reports to <>.

       Copyright 2002-2009 by Audrey Tang <>.

       Neither this program nor the associated parl program impose any licensing
       restrictions on files generated by their execution, in accordance with
       the 8th article of the Artistic License:

           "Aggregation of this Package with a commercial distribution is
           always permitted provided that the use of this Package is embedded;
           that is, when no overt attempt is made to make this Package's
           interfaces visible to the end user of the commercial distribution.
           Such use shall not be construed as a distribution of this Package."

       Therefore, you are absolutely free to place any license on the resulting
       executable, as long as the packed 3rd-party libraries are also available
       under the Artistic License.

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the same terms as Perl itself.

       See LICENSE.

perl v5.30.2                       2020-03-08                             PAR(1)